Hamburg, Germany · July 24, 1943

On this date in 1943 over the North German city of Hamburg, the Royal Air Force kicked off Opera­tion Gomor­rah (July 24 to August 3, 1943). British retali­ation for the Luftwaffe’s fire­bombing of the medi­eval city of Coven­try in the English Mid­lands, where 500 tons of explo­sives and 56 tons of in­cen­di­aries over a 10-hour period killed 538 Britons and destroyed the his­toric cathe­dral, had been two and a half years in the making. The Hamburg bombing tactics were nothing new: first high-explo­sive bombs dropped over the target to blow off roofs and open doors and windows, then incen­di­aries to ignite the splintered remains. The dif­fer­ence lay in the scale of the city-busting offen­sive against “the second city of the Reich.” On the night of July 24–25, 1943, 791 RAF bomber crews dropped 2,300 tons of bombs on Ham­burg in little over an hour—five times more ton­nage than the hea­viest air raid the Luft­waffe had in­flicted on the British capital, London. The fires lit by the incen­di­ary bombs were fan­ned by winds, causing single blazes to merge into an inferno. The raid was repeated three days later with even more devas­ta­ting effects: this time the “fire typhoon,” as con­tem­po­raries called the merged fires, caused a giant up­draft that sucked in air to create a fur­nace that immo­lated 42,000 souls, set asphalt streets on fire, incin­er­ated the city center, and destroyed 16,000 apart­ments; nearly one million were left home­less. Winter coal supplies stored in cellars burned for weeks. The Britain-based U.S. Eighth Air Force flung itself into the fray, con­duct­ing 235 day­light sorties in two raids on July 25 and 26. The devas­ta­tion wrought by nearly a million-and-a-half incen­di­aries on U-boat pens, fac­tories, busi­nesses, and resi­dences so jolted Adolf Hitler that he refused to tour the city after­wards. But Hamburg fore­shadowed what Berlin would soon look like. Between the end of Gomorrah and March 1944, the RAF moved the war to Hitler’s door­step, dis­patching more than 10,000 sorties to drop over 30,000 tons of bombs on the Reich capital. It was the RAF’s supreme effort to destroy Berlin and end the war. Although aerial bombing destroyed places of pro­duction and workers’ homes, killed inno­cents, affected morale, and reduced the German war effort, it didn’t end the conflict. Boots on the ground did that.

The Destruction of Hamburg: Operation Gomorrah, July 24 to August 3, 1943

Hamburg from the air, 1944 or 1945 Hamburg street

Left: Burned-out multistory apartment buildings in Hamburg in 1944 or 1945. On the RAF’s second raid on Hamburg on the night of July 27–28, 1943, more than 700 aircraft of the main force dropped 2,326 tons of high explosives plus batches of four-pound incendiary sticks in a concentrated area about two miles from the city center. A German report described a “fire typhoon such as was never before witnessed, against which every human resistance was quite useless.”

Right: A Hamburg street cleared of rubble. According to an RAF assessment, at least 74 percent of Hamburg’s closely built-up residential districts were laid to waste. Luftwaffe chief Hermann Goering reported that a city with a million inhabitants “has been destroyed in a manner unparalleled in history.”

Smoldering fires in Hamburg Rubble-strewn Hamburg street

Left: Fires smoldered, possibly in cellars storing coal, for weeks. Hamburg’s destruction dem­on­strated that the Allies would win the war in Europe, and that Germany would pay dearly for every day it did not capitulate. As British Prime Minister Winston Churchill said, after the German and Italian forces began retreating from North Africa in November 1942, it was the “end of the beginning.” Hamburg in July 1943 was the beginning of the end.

Right: The destruction of 6,200 heavily urbanized acres (nearly 10 sq. miles) of Hamburg was grim. Only Berlin, with 6,427 burned-out acres, had more total area leveled, according to RAF calculations. Altogether 277,330 Hamburg apartments, 580 industrial plants, 2,632 commercial concerns, 80 Wehrmacht installations, 24 hospitals, 277 schools, and 58 churches were destroyed in Operation Gomorrah.

Street victims of Gomorrah Underground victims of Gomorrah

Left: Hamburg’s air raid shelters and bunkers were insufficient and simply incapable of pro­tecting its population from the effects of the Allied air campaign. All residents not engaged in the armaments industry were evacuated. Roughly 900,000 citizens left, thousands ending up in refugee settlements in Schleswig-Holstein (107,000), the Bayreuth district (58,000), Magdeburg-Anhalt (55,000), Hannover East (45,000) and Danzig, West Prussia (now Poland) (20,400).

Right: Scene confronting rescue workers entering an air raid shelter after an air raid, possibly the July 27–28 raid. Of the estimated 30,000 victims of that nighttime raid, most succumbed to carbon monoxide poisoning when all the air was sucked out of their shelters. By the end of November 1943, authorities had recovered 31,647 bodies, of which only 15,802 could be identified.

Silent German Film of Hamburg’s Devastation by Anglo-American Bombers During and After Operation Gomorrah, July–August 1943