Slapton Sands, Devonshire Coast, Southwest England April 28, 1944

Shortly after midnight on this date in 1944 German torpe­do boats (S‑boats, short for Schnell [Fast] boats) on a rou­tine patrol out of Cher­bourg in occupied France sud­denly found them­selves in the middle of Oper­a­tion (or Exer­cise) Tiger, code­named T‑4. Oper­a­tion Tiger con­sisted of a convoy of eight Amer­i­can LSTs (Landing Ship, Tanks) and their British escorts that were engaged in a live-fire dress rehear­sal of the D-Day landings on France’s Normandy coast that would take place six weeks later. The LSTs were crammed with am­phi­bious vehicles, jeeps, and trucks, along with 30,000 soldiers in full battle gear.

The nine German night­time inter­cep­tors were each over hun­dred feet long, armed with two tor­pe­does and two 20mm cannons, and painted black for camou­flage. Cap­able of traveling at 40–50 knots/hour for as many as 700 nau­tical miles, they were designed to wreak max­i­mum havoc in the English Chan­nel, and on this night in Lyme Bay close to Slap­ton Sands they did just that. At the time the Germans suc­ceeded in getting close enough to the Tiger con­voy to launch their torpe­does, they had no idea what the slow-moving ships and the heavier-than-nor­mal radio traf­fic meant. In quick suc­ces­sion the Schnell­boote crippled one LST, caused another to burst into flames, trapping many of the victims below deck, and sank a third one imme­di­ately. One quarter­master service com­pany was vir­tually wiped out: 201 offi­cers and men out of a total of 251 were killed out­right, wounded, or succumbed to hypothermia in the cold channel waters.

Despite Royal Navy patrols in the English Channel that night, the Schnell­boot raiders made a clean escape under a smoke­screen with­out a single casualty. The offi­cial death count was 749 Amer­i­can service­members; another count puts the dead at close to 1,000. For days bodies of sol­diers and sai­lors washed up on the south­west coast of Eng­land. Those floating in the water were scooped up by small landing craft with their ramps lowered. Three hundred and eight more Amer­i­can casual­ties (dead and dying) occurred on Red Beach (stand-in for Normandy’s Utah Beach), the result of friendly naval fire from a British heavy cruiser.

Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower, Supreme Com­man­der of the Allied Expe­di­tionary Force for the Allied gamble that had the poten­tial for deciding the course of the war in Europe, ordered the dead be buried sec­retly in mili­tary grave­yards, refused to deco­rate sol­diers who had acted heroically in rescue opera­tions, and placed the sur­vi­vors in select camps under quar­an­tine and a news black­out. Service­men were threat­ened with court-martial if they leaked news of the tragedy. The dead­liest Amer­i­can training in­ci­dent of the war was an ominous precursor to D‑Day, June 6, 1944.

Dress Rehearsal for the Allied Invasion of France, April and May 1944

U.S. troops in England rehearse Normandy invasion U.S. troops march to English embarkation docks

Left: American troops practice beach landings in South­west England during a dry run for the inva­sion of Normandy, France. The rehearsal area had been selected owing to its topo­graphical simi­larity to Normandy. (Selec­tion unfor­tu­nately required the for­cible evac­u­a­tion of some English sea­side villagers, sworn to secrecy, and their live­stock.) For more than a week soldiers and sailors tested landing and support craft, equip­ment and vehicles, dem­o­li­tion pro­ce­dures, and various small unit tactics, among other things, in a live-fire setting. The night­time trag­edy off the coast of Devon near Slap­ton Sands, in which perhaps 750 service­men lost their lives on April 28, 1944, pro­vided valu­able mili­tary readi­ness lessons for Operation Overlord six weeks away.

Right: The 2nd Battalion, U.S. Army Rangers march to their landing craft in Wey­mouth, England, in this photo from June 5, 1944. Along with the 5th Ranger Bat­tal­ion, the 2nd was tasked with cap­turing the Ger­man heavy coastal defense bat­tery at Pointe du Hoc, a promon­tory with a 100‑ft cliff, 4 miles to the west of the D‑Day landing zone of Omaha Beach. (On June 6 the rangers assaulted Pointe du Hoc only to discover the six 155mm artil­lery pieces had been removed from the loca­tion.) A total of 1.5 mil­lion Amer­i­can service­men and service­women and almost a half-million vehicles were squeezed into Southern England in advance of Operation Overlord. During early June, when troops walked or rode to their embar­ka­tion ports, civilian traffic came almost to a standstill.

German E-boat flies surrender flag, May 1945 LST in Normandy, June 1944

Left: The German S-boot S 204 flies a white flag of surrender at the British coastal forces base at Suf­folk on May 13, 1945. During World War II, S‑boats (referred to by the Allies as “E[enemy]-boats”) sank 101 mer­chant ships totaling 214,728 tons, plus numer­ous ships of the Royal Navy, among them 12 destroyers and 11 mine­sweepers. Of the 240-odd S‑boats produced during the war, approxi­mately half sur­vived owing in part to their speed, which allowed them to evade enemy pursuers, and in part to their wooden hulls, which allowed them to cross mag­netic mine­fields unscathed. Many of the S‑boats and their larger cousins, the T‑boats, were destroyed in Allied bombing attacks on their French home ports.

Right: LST was the military desig­na­tion for naval ves­sels created during World War II to sup­port amphib­ious oper­a­tions by carrying signif­i­cant quan­ti­ties of vehicles, cargo, and landing troops directly onto an unim­proved shore, such as the one shown here on the Normandy coast. The class of LSTs in Oper­a­tions Tiger and Over­lord could carry close to 4,000 tons fully loaded. Of the 1,051 LSTs con­structed during the war, only 26 were lost due to enemy action. With­out the LST or some­thing like it, neither the Allied inva­sion of France nor the Pacific Islands campaign would have been practical.

BBC Production Recounts Operation Tiger Disaster

WWII Chronicles book coverHistory buffs, there is good news! The Daily Chronicles of World War II is now avail­able as an ebook for $4.99 on The ebook contains a year’s worth of dated entries from this web­site. Featuring inven­tive naviga­tion aids, the ebook enables readers to instantly move for­ward or back­ward by month and date to different dated entries. Simple and elegant! Click here to purchase the ebook.
WWII Chronicles book coverHistory buffs, there is good news! The Daily Chronicles of World War II is now avail­able as an ebook for $4.99 on Con­taining a year’s worth of dated entries from this web­site, the ebook brings the story of this tumul­tu­ous era to life in a com­pelling, author­i­ta­tive, and suc­cinct man­ner. Fea­turing inven­tive naviga­tion aids, the ebook enables readers to instantly move for­ward or back­ward by month and date to dif­fer­ent dated entries. Simple and elegant! Click here to purchase the ebook.